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T&T Drilling are borehole experts who are on hand to offer you advice about drilling a borehole. With a borehole from T&T Drilling, you can save thousands of rands. Below find a list of terms associated with boreholes and borehole drilling.

A water bearing layer of sediment or rock with interconnected pore spaces or fractures that can store and deliver water to a borehole or spring.


The cylindrical hole drilled into the ground and aquifer.


Steel or PVC pipe placed in the borehole to keep the borehole open and to allow room to store water and install a pump. Average casing depths in Gauteng are 12-24m (some holes may require casing from surface to the end of the borehole).

Electrical Cable

Wiring from the pump control box to the pump that supplies power for the pump and command signals.

Drop Pipe

Pipe placed in the casing to connect the pump to the surface.

End Cap

Cap placed on the bottom of the casing - if the casing extends to the bottom of the borehole and gravel packed to prevent sediment from flowing into the casing on a screened well.

Submersible Pump

A common type of water well pump includes the pump and pump motor placed at the bottom of the drop pipe below the pumping water level.

Pumping Water Level

The depth below the ground surface of the water level in the well when the pump is operating. This is always deeper than the static water level.

Sanitary Well Cap / Base Plate

A vented and vermin proof cap on the top of the well casing that prevents surface contaminants from entering the inside of the well.

Water Table

The upper surface of the zone where pore spaces are saturated as indicated by the static water level in an un-pumped well.

Cement or Bentonite

Placed between the wall of the borehole and the casing and surface casing to prevent surface contamination from reaching the aquifer.


A vented water holding tank, usually above ground, used for storage of water before being delivered to the pressure tank and home. Cisterns come in varying sizes - typical sizes are 2500L, 5000L & 10 000L.

Pressure Tank

A water holding tank equipped with an air bladder that regulates water pressure into the home and demand to the pump.

Ground Water

Water stored beneath the surface of the earth that is transmitted through small, interconnected pores and fractures in hard rock.

Gravel Pack

Gravel or sand placed between the borehole wall and the well screen to keep the borehole open and filter water before it enters the well.

Pressure Tank

A water holding tank equipped with an air bladder that regulates water pressure into the home and demand to the pump.

Static Water Level

The depth below ground surface of water when the pump is not operating. This level will vary seasonally and over longer time periods due to recharge, drought or groundwater mining.


Water flowing directly from an aquifer on to the surface. For drinking water the spring is usually surrounded by a spring house which protects the spring from outside contamination.

Treatment Equipment

Can include a variety of equipment designed to remove various water contaminants and purify groundwater before use.

Well Screen

Steel or PVC perforated pipe that water from the aquifer flows through to enter the well and pump. In wells completed in bedrock there may not be a well screen or gravel pack.